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Title: Surveillance of adenoviruses and noroviruses in European recreational waters
Author: Wyn-Jones, A. Peter
Carducci, Annalaura
Cook, Nigel
D'Agostino, Martin
Divizia, Maurizio
Fleischer, Jens
Gantzer, Christophe
Gawler, Andrew
Gironès Llop, Rosina
Höller, Christiane
Roda Husman, Ana Maria de
Kozyra, Iwona
López-Pila, Juan
Muscillo, Michele
Nascimento, Maria
Papageorgiou, George
Rutjes, Saskia
Sellwood, Jane
Wyer, Mark
Kay, David
Keywords: Adenovirus
Aigua dolça
Aigua de mar
Qualitat de l'aigua
Fresh water
Water quality
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Abstract: Exposure to human pathogenic viruses in recreational waters has been shown to cause disease outbreaks. In the context of Article 14 of the revised European Bathing Waters Directive 2006/7/EC (rBWD, CEU, 2006) a Europe-wide surveillance study was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of two human enteric viruses in recreational waters. Adenoviruses were selected based on their near-universal shedding and environmental survival, and noroviruses (NoV) selected as being the most prevalent gastroenteritis agent worldwide. Concentration of marine and freshwater samples was done by adsorption/elution followed by molecular detection by (RT)-PCR. Out of 1410 samples, 553 (39.2%) were positive for one or more of the target viruses. Adenoviruses, detected in 36.4% of samples, were more prevalent than noroviruses (9.4%), with 3.5% GI and 6.2% GII, some samples being positive for both GI and GII. Of 513 human adenovirus-positive samples, 63 (12.3%) were also norovirus-positive, whereas 69 (7.7%) norovirus-positive samples were adenovirus-negative. More freshwater samples than marine water samples were virus-positive. Out of a small selection of samples tested for adenovirus infectivity, approximately one-quarter were positive. Sixty percent of 132 nested-PCR adenovirus-positive samples analysed by quantitative PCR gave a mean value of over 3000 genome copies per L of water. The simultaneous detection of infectious adenovirus and of adenovirus and NoV by (RT)PCR suggests that the presence of infectious viruses in recreational waters may constitute a public health risk upon exposure. These studies support the case for considering adenoviruses as an indicator of bathing water quality.
Note: Versió postprint del document publicat a:
It is part of: Water Research, 2011, vol. 45, núm. 3, p. 1025-1038
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ISSN: 0043-1354
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Genètica, Microbiologia i Estadística)
Publicacions de projectes de recerca finançats per la UE

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